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Mar 23 2016

***Research Study*** – Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial

Cardiovascular Risk: Cheese, Meat or Carbs

“Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial”

For years we have been told that we must cut Saturated Fat from our diets and increase our “Vegetable Oils”. Well, thankfully research is now showing that this is not the case. But, what type of saturated fats should we be eating?

This study explored the effects of both cheese and meat as sources of Saturated Fatty Acids or Isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins and fecal excretion of fat.

METHOD

This study consisted of 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Each woman followed 3 separate eating plans (consisting of same number of calories) for a period of 2 weeks each with a 2 week washout period in between (no particular diet).

DIET #1 – A high fat cheese diet;

DIET #2 – A high fat meat diet; and

DIET #3 РA low fat, high carb diet. 

TERMINOLOGY

Apoprotein AI

This is a major protein component of HDL in plasma. It promotes fat efflux including cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for excretion. It also seems to have anti clotting effects. Being a major component of HDL apo A1 helps to clear fats such as cholesterol from the white blood cells within the artery walls, making the cells less likely to become overloaded with fat, transform into foam cells, die and then contribute to progressive atheroma.

Exercise has also been found to increase Apo-AI levels.

Apoprotein B

A form of lipoprotein that is most likely to enter the walls of the arteries. If this number is high, the risk of atherosclerosis will increase and may be a main initiating factor in heart disease. This number has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than LDL cholesterol. Even more than this number, is the ratio between Apo AI and Apo B.

The normal range is 40-125 mg/dL. Less than 100 mg/dL is desirable in low or intermediate risk individuals. In high risk individuals it is wise to get it below 80 mg/dL.

Apo-B is able to be lowered with a low carbohydrate diet and physical exercise.

RESULTS

  • The Cheese Diet caused a 5% higher HDL cholesterol concentration than the Low Fat High Carb Diet;
  • The Cheese Diet caused an 8% higher aporotein AI concentration than the Low Fat High Carb Diet;
  • The Cheese Diet caused a 5% lower apoprotein¬†B than the Low Fat High Carb Diet;
  • The Meat Diet caused an 8% higher HDL cholesterol concentration than the Low Fat High Carb Diet;
  • The Meat Diet caused a 4% higher apoprotein AI concentration than the Low Fat High Carb Diet;
  • Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B and Triacylglycerol were similar with all three diets;
  • Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9g higher with the cheese group than the carb and meat groups but the meat diet produced higher fat excretion than the carb group.

CONCLUSIONS

Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of saturated fatty acids cause higher HDL cholesterol and Apo – 1 and therefore it appears they are both less atherogenic than the low fat high carbohydrate diet.

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