Tag Archive: Supplementation

Apr 18 2017

LCKL 073 – Coenzyme A – The Power of It for Fat Loss, Physical Performance and Much More…

Co-Enzyme A is a critical enzyme that is needed to function the body as well as to assist in the production of Co-Enzyme Q10 and NADH. Learn about what you can do to increase your own level of Co-Enzyme A and what may be causing you to be deficient.

  • What Coenzyme A is;
  • Symptoms of Coenzyme A Deficiency;
  • Factors that deplete Coenzyme A in your body;
  • 9 Benefits of Coenzyme A;
  • Whether Coenzyme A supplementation is beneficial;
  • What type of Supplement is the most useful for increasing Coenzyme A in your body;
  • Increasing levels of Coenzyme A in the body.
What is Co-Enzyme A?Symptoms of CoA DeficiencyBenefitsWill Coenzyme A Supplementation be effective?How To Increase Levels of Co Enzyme A in the body...
  • Coenzyme A is a nonprotein chemical substance which is needed for the activation of many enzymes.
  • If there is not enough CoEnzyme A in the body, it will be unable to synthesize CoEnzyme Q10 or NADH.
  • It is naturally synthesized from Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid). This Vitamin is able to be found in meats and vegetables so is provided in adequate quantities in the ketogenic diet.
  • Deficiencies of this nutrient is extremely rare but when it does occur, symptoms include:
    • Fatigue;
    • Muscle Soreness; and
    • Metabolic Disorders.
  • However, there are a number of factors which can deplete your body of Coenzyme A such as:
    • Exercise;
    • Toxic Metals; and
    • Environmental Toxins.

Lowers Stress Levels

  • It is vital to the production of hydrocortisone, which is the anti-stress hormone.
  • Therefore, a deficiency in CoA can result in depression, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, increased need for sleep and lowered immunity.
  • If you are overly stressed, Co A supplementation can be of benefit.

Increases Energy

  • CoA is required to metabolize fats, carbohydrates and proteins and is important for converting them into energy at a cellular level.
  • It is incredibly important for energy production due to the fact that it is a major part of the Krebs Energy Cycle within the cells.
  • A deficiency of this vitamin can block the energy cycle and lead to a host of metabolic disorders.
  • Co-enzyme A is classified as the ignition switch for the whole process of energy production and therefore a deficiency can lead to chronic fatigue syndrome.

Prevents Weight Gain

  • Having a deficiency in this enzyme will result in not only lack of energy therefore prevent you from exercising but will also stop the metabolism of fats, therefore causing the fats to accumulate.

Synthesizes Fatty Acids

  • Both CoA and its acyl-carrier protein are required for the synthesis of fatty acids.
  • Fatty acids are important components of many lipids, which are fat molecules that are essential for normal physiological function.
  • These essential fats include such substances as sphingolipids, which are important components of the myelin sheath which enhance nerve transmission, as well as phospholipids which are found in the cell membranes.

Helps with the Functioning of other Co-Enzymes

  • CoA is essential for the functioning of other important enzymes and coenzymes.
  • For instance, CoA is necessary to utilise Coenzyme Q10, as well as other important energy producing enzymes.
  • Without CoA, CoQ10 cannot perform its essential tasks of protecting against Heart Disease, Muscular Dystrophies, Parkinson’s Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and HIV.

Helps Reduce Acne

  • Research has shown that CoA supplementation can actually help to reduce the risk of and/or treat the occurrence of acne.
  • A study was conducted by Dr Leung, who found that acne breakouts are observed when the body fails to produce enough Coenzyme A. Therefore, the body fails to break down the fatty acids that are responsible for the production of sebum.
  • Deficiency in CoA has been linked to the inability to break down the fatty acids and also poor synthesis of sex hormones.
  • This particular study found that supplementation with Co A was able to resolve acne over a few week period and this lasted for over 6 months.

Helps in the Production of Various Hormones and Vitamins

  • Coenzyme A is required to transform cholesterol into all kinds of hormones.
  • It is required to help with the production of Vitamin D.
  • Important for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  • Important for the synthesis of the hormone melatonin.
  • Important for the synthesis of haemoglobin.

Assists in the Metabolism of Drugs and Toxins by the liver

Important for Acetylation Reactions

  • Protein acetylation affects the 3 dimensional structure of proteins, potentially altering their function.
  • This appears to play a role in cell division and DNA replication.
  • No, supplementing with CoEnzyme A alone will not be effective.
  • Coenzyme A is produced within the cells.
  • The digestive process will simply break down the Coenzyme A back into its components when it enters the bloodstream.
  • It is much more effective to instead take a supplement that includes its derivatives Vitamin B5 and B6/Folate (conversion of homocysteine to cysteine).
  • However, there is a supplement known as Pantethine (which will be discussed in next weeks episode) which has been found to be a much more effective way of increasing your Co A levels in your body as well as a whole host of other benefits. Make sure you listen out for next Wednesdays episode to hear more about that.
  • The best way to increase your level of CoA in the body is to ensure that you are consuming

sufficient Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid.

  • Take a supplement of Pantethine, which is the active form of Vitamin B5.
  • Consume foods rich in Vitamin B5 such as:
    • Chicken Livers;
    • Sunflower Seeds;
    • Salmon;
    • Avocados;
  • As you can see these top foods are ones we do recommend on the ketogenic or low carb diet.
  • Decrease the level of toxins you are subjected to as environmental and nutritional toxins can deplete your body of high levels of Coenzyme A.
  • If you are a heavy exerciser, make sure you supplement with Pantethine as exercise can also deplete your body of this vital enzyme.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Mar 08 2017

LCKL 055 – The Power of Alpha Lipoic Acid to Modulate Blood Sugar Levels and Increase Fat Loss

Are you dealing with Type 2 Diabetes or Severe Insulin Resistance? Are you curious about how antioxidants work? If so, then Alpha Lipoic Acid may be just what you are looking for. This amazing supplement is not only a fantastic antioxidant, but it also works to Lower Blood Sugars, Improve Type 2 Diabetes, Improve Cardiovascular Health, Improve Eye Health, Improve Nervous System and the Brain, as well as help with Fat Loss…

  • What is Alpha Lipoic Acid and why do we require more of it as we get older?
  • What are Antioxidants?
  • What is Oxidation?
  • How do different antioxidants differ?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid work as an antioxidant?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid work to Lower Blood Sugars and Improve Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid help with Cardiovascular Issues?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid help with the Eyes?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid help with the Nervous System and the Brain?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid help with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?
  • How does Alpha Lipoic Acid help with Fat Loss?
  • What food sources are rich in Alpha Lipoic Acid?
  • What dosages of Alpha Lipoic Acid Should I have Per Day?
  • What are the Side Effects of taking Alpha Lipoic Acid regularly?
  • What precautions should I take when taking Alpha Lipoic Acid?
What is Alpha Lipoic AcidWhat are AntioxidantsBenefitsSourcesDosagesSide Effects
  • ALA or Alpha Lipoic Acid is a natural compound that is made in the body.
  • It is incredibly important and serves many vital functions at the cellular level, such as energy production.
  • As we age, the amount of ALA that we produce naturally decreases and therefore can induce greater free radical damage.
  • Before we go into the benefits of this supplement let me first explain what oxidation is and what antioxidants can do for you.
  • Oxidants are free radicals that you may find in the environment and they are also produced within your body under stressful situations or in the presence of pollution, cigarettes or alcohol.
  • Your body will create oxidant to help fend off microbes and viruses. However, if you have too many of them, they can cause serious damage and even contribute to certain cancers as well as heart disease.
  • So, does that means you should have unlimited amounts of supplemental antioxidants? The answer is a resounding no. If you take too many antioxidants in supplemental form then you turn off your bodies own production of antioxidants like glutathione. This means that when you stop taking the supplements you will not be able to produce the internal antioxidants like you should.
  • It is very important that you just make sure you consume a healthy diet with plenty of vegetables, spices, herbs and grass fed / pasture raised animals and you will possibly get the majority of the antioxidants you need and then you can just possibly add in 1 or 2 other sources.
  • What’s interesting is because of the different structures of different antioxidants they tend to provide benefits to different parts of the body:
    • Beta Carotene – Beneficial to eye health;
    • Lycopene – Beneficial for prostate health;
    • Flavonoids – Beneficial for heart health;
    • Proanthocyanidins – Beneficial for urinary tract health; and
    • Astaxanthin – Possibly the most potent antioxidant out there which is why I wrote a book on it entitled Healing with Astaxanthin, which is available both on my website and via Amazon.
      • It is particularly beneficial for protecting the skin against skin cancers.
      • Both Astaxanthin and Spirulina has been found to enhance both non specific and specific immune system and protect cell membranes and cellular DNA from mutation.

It is a Potent Antioxidant

  • It is an antioxidant that protects against damage to the body’s cells.
  • One of the main dangers of Diabetes is oxidative stress and the production of free radicals. The higher your blood glucose levels, the higher the amount of oxidative stress.
  • It is a very special antioxidant because it can act in both water and fat soluble domains in the cells and tissues. Therefore, it is easily absorbed and transported into many organs and systems throughout the body, such as the brain, liver and nerves.
  • This differs from other antioxidants such as:
    • Vitamin C – Only water soluble, therefore is not able to penetrate the lipid wall of the cell membranes very easily.
    • Vitamin E – Only fat soluble so you require sufficient amount of fats in your diet to be able to use properly.
  • Lipoic acid is so great that it even helps to regenerate vitamins C and E. It also helps to amplify the positive effects of other antioxidants such as glutathione and Coenzyme Q10.
  • On top of this, it teams up with the B Vitamins to support energy production in the body by converting the components of food into stored energy for future use. It helps to protect the mitochondria from being damaged and therefore makes energy production much more efficient.

Lowers Blood Sugar Levels and Improves Diabetes

  • Studies have shown that ALA may help reduce symptoms of peripheral neuropathy/nerve damage caused by diabetes. Although research has been done on use of intravenous ALA for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, not as much research has been done on oral use.
  • It has also been shown to enhance the body’s ability to use its own insulin to lower blood sugar in people with T2D.
  • Lipoic Acid is so good that it has been found to work at improving Diabetes in only 4 weeks of supplementation.
  • Early studies have also shown that just 5 weeks of lipoic acid supplementation of 600-1800mg daily significantly improves stabbing pain, burning pain and numbness of the feet.

Improves Cardiovascular Health

  • Studies have shown that Lipoic Acid alongside Acetyl L Carnitine is incredibly beneficial for the cardiovascular system, especially Coronary Artery Disease.
  • It has been shown to be effective for reducing blood pressure

Improves Eye Health

  • Lipoic Acid has been found to help with cataracts due to its ability to protect against oxidative stress in the eye.
  • Studies have also shown it to be beneficial for protecting against glaucoma. This study had patients take either 75mg of lipoic acid daily for 2 months or 150mg of lipoic acid daily for 1 month.
  • Finally, research has shown it to be effective at protecting against retinitis pigmentosa which is quite a serious eye disease that can lead to serious vision loss. At present there is no medical treatment for that so the fact that it can be helped naturally is awesome.

Improves Nervous System

  • Lipoic Acid is an amazing nutrient, as I said before, because it can pass readily into the brain and reach all parts of the nerve cell.
  • Studies have shown that it may be effective for reducing brain damage after a stroke and that although it was an animal study, they lasted for 3 times as long as those that didn’t take the lipoic acid.
  • Lipoic Acid may also protect against AD by increasing the production of acetylcholine in the brain, which is often deficient in Alzheimers patients.
  • Headaches and Migraines may also be a thing of the past if you are taking Alpha Lipoic Acid supplements. Studies have shown that taking 600mg of ALA per day for 3 months results in decreased intensity and frequency of migraines.

Reduces Pain from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • A study in the Journal of Hand Surgery by Boriani F et al found that postoperative administration of ALA after median nerve decompression may result in a lower incidence of pillar pain from carpal tunnel syndrome.

Improves Fat Loss

  • If you are looking at reducing body fat then Alpha Lipoic Acid may be something you would be interested in.
  • A very recent study that was published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology took 103 subjects and were randomised to receive either placebo or ALA (1200mg/day) for a period of 8 weeks. They tested them for body weight, changes in waist circumference, BMI, Lipid Profile and Plasma Leptin Levels.
  • Although no significant differences were noted in cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, HDL levels there was some mild weight loss accompanied by a reduction in waist circumference.
  • Dark, Green Leafy Vegetables.
  • Beef.
  • Organ Meats.
  • Studies have shown dosages ranging from 300 to 1800mg per day.
  • It is a good idea to also supplement with Biotin and B Complex for optimal benefits.
  • Very rare and mild, such as skin rash.
  • Ensure you see a practitioner if you take insulin or other medications to lower blood sugars. Supplementation can enhance the effects of the drugs, leading to hypoglycaemia.
  • Studies have not been done on pregnant women or nursing mothers and therefore definitely consult a practitioner first.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Mar 07 2017

LCKL 054 – Should Glutamine Be Taken With Cancer or Not and How Does the Ketogenic Diet Affect It?

Are you dealing with Cancer at the moment and you are confused as to whether a high protein or a high fat diet is better for you… Have you heard about the term gluconeogenesis but don’t understand how that may impact you? If so, then in this episode I will go into the research as to how Glutamine may affect your cancer prognosis.

  • What is Glutamine?
  • What are some Glutamine Deficiency Symptoms?
  • What are the benefits of Glutamine supplementation?
  • The best sources of Glutamine…
  • The best type of Glutamine to take…
  • How much Glutamine you should take…
  • Any side effects you may experience…
  • Controversies – Why you should take Glutamine with cancer; and
  • Controversies – Why you should not take Glutamine with cancer.
What is Glutamine?Deficiency SymptomsBenefitsSourcesTypesDosagesSide EffectsControversiesConclusions
  • L Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is needed by your body. This means that your body will synthesize sufficient amounts of glutamine by itself, but during periods of stress, the demand for it increases and it must be obtained from the diet and/or supplementation.
  • It is a glucogenic amino acid which means that it is converted to alpha keto acids and then to glucose, which explains why it is important that you do not eat a high protein diet but actually a high fat diet. Otherwise, protein can be converted to sugar with the use of the process gluconeogenesis.
  • The most relevant glutamine producing tissue is the muscle mass, which actually accounts for 90% of the glutamine synthesized. However, it is also released in small amounts in the lungs and brain.
  • Although a very important amino acid there is some controversy about using Glutamine in the case of cancer and in regards to the ketogenic diet.
  • This is something I will be going into now.
  • Decreased interest in Intimacy;
  • Inability to concentrate;
  • Low energy, both mentally and physically;
  • Increase in cravings;
  • A feeling of being not alert.

Improves Gastrointestinal Health

  • It is a vital nutrient for the intestines to repair and rebuild.
  • Helps to heal stomach ulcers and leaky gut syndrome. Studies have shown that as glutamine is a main fuel source of the small intestine, it can heal leaky gut in many instances.
  • Balances mucus production, therefore helping with constipation, ibs and diarrhea.
  • If you have any sort of digestive issues, then L-Glutamine is possibly one of the best supplements you can take. Some common issues that respond particularly well to supplementation include:
    • IBS;
    • Crohns Disease;
    • Ulcerative Colitis;
    • Diverticulosis;
    • Diverticulitis;
    • Leaky Gut; or
    • Any conditions associated with leaky gut like joint pain, rosacea, autoimmunity.

Improves Immunity

  • Studies have shown that L-Glutamine can also benefit the body by regulating your IgA response and therefore lowers food sensitivities and allergies.
  • It also helps to normalise the effects of the TH2 Immune Response which stimulates inflammatory cytokines.
  • Therefore L-Glutamine can actually help with healing food sensitivities.

Brain Health

  • An essential neurotransmitter in the brain that helps with memory, focus and concentration.
  • Glutamine boosts brain function by increasing glutamic acid and gamma aminobutyric acid, which are two of the most important neurotransmitters in the brain.
  • It also detoxes your brain of metabolic residues and therefore improves its brain function. This helps increase energy and attention and will therefore make learning and cognitive function a lot better.


  • L-Glutamine cleanses the body from high levels of Ammonia by converting the excess into other amino acids, amino sugars and urea.

Muscle Growth and Fitness

  • Helps to promote muscle growth and decrease muscle wasting.
  • Helps improve athletic performance and recovery from endurance exercise.
  • During an intense workout, your body requires a lot more glutamine than it normally would as the body becomes stressed and your muscles and tendons will require extra.
  • By supplementing with L-Glutamine your muscles will be able to fight and push a bit further which will improve your performance.
  • Glutamine improves muscle hydration, therefore allowing your body to recover quicker from intense training sessions.
  • If you are doing intense exercise you must take it regularly as it can take a week or so to fully fill your stores up with glutamine.

Fat Loss

  • Improves metabolism by increasing the level of Human Growth Hormone by up to 400%.
  • Curbs cravings for sugar and alcohol.
  • Improves diabetes and blood sugars.
  • Grass Fed Beef;
  • Bone Broth;
  • Dairy;
  • Spinach;
  • Parsley;
  • Red Cabbage;
  • Wild Caught Fish;
  • Free Range Poultry.

Pure  L Glutamine – This is in the free form and must be taken with food for proper absorption.

Alanyl L Glutamine – One amino acid attached to another which therefore makes it easier to digest. It is able to be taken on an empty stomach.

It is recommended that you take up to 10g of L-Glutamine per day, however make sure it is balanced with other amino acids. That is, unless you have cancer, in which case you have to listen on and see whether it applies to you.

Side effects are very rare but occasionally it can cause upset stomach or nausea and therefore it is best to take it after eating and not on an empty stomach.

Against Taking It

  • Many cancer cells can actually rely on Glutamine as a fuel source instead of sugars.
  • This is one reason why the ketogenic diet can be exceptional in treating many cancers.
  • A proper ketogenic diet will moderate protein levels and in the case of therapeutic ketogenic diets (such as for treating cancers or epilepsy) can actually be low in protein.
  • Therefore as much as 90-95% can be fat based on a therapeutic keto diet for advanced stage cancers.
  • According to an article that was published in the huffington post by Aidan Goggins, there are a number of reasons why glutamine may halt our ability to defend and/or destroy cancer cells.
    • It Blocks Oxidative Stress – Although this may sound like a good thing, and in many cases it is, it is not necessarily so with cancer cells. Free radicals play an important role in cell regulation and in promoting oncogenic stress. This is important with cancer cells because the increased free radicals in cancer cells causes a DNA damage response, which in the end can cause cell death.
    • Stops Cell Repair/Autophagy – Macroautophagy is the degradation and recycling of unnecessary and dysfunctional components and is therefore a very important mechanism for responding to cell damage. It is a catabolic process and it is activated by metabolic stress such as that found in extended fasting (please see my Water Fasting Course for further information). When consuming protein (i.e. Glutamine) it activates the signalling protein mTORC1 and suppresses autophagy.
    • It Buffers The Cell – Cells are required to be kept at a minimum pH for survival. However, cancer cells are dependent on the production of acidic lactate (from glutamine and glucose), which will lower intracellular pH to a dangerous level unless something is available to neutralise this excess acid. When glutamine is metabolised, ammonia will be produced, which is the key in the cancer cells acid resistance and for ensuring its survival. It is believed that cancer cells are actually addicted to glutamine and can increase substantially with the ingestion of it and cannot survive without it. Another reason to get onto a ketogenic diet. Eliminate both sugar and glutamine.

 For Taking It

  • There have been experts out there that believe it is perfectly safe to take glutamine during cancer treatments as the cancer cells possess a deterioration of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Oxidative Phosphorylation pathway, therefore suggests that the peripheral use is limited with oral doses.
  • They therefore believe that glutamine is safe to use in most cancer types, except that of brain tumors.
  • They believe that as cancer and radiation can cause GI Damage, glutamine should definitely be implemented to heal the gut.
  • It is believed that cachexia resulting from cancer treatments can deplete the glutamine pool and therefore requires the addition of supplementation.
  • It is said that in order to improve the safety of glutamine supplementation during active cancer, carbohydrate restriction should be implemented as well (i.e. ketogenic diet).
  • The controversy exists though because when you are low in glutamine, your immune system may not be as functional to fight the effects of cancer treatments etc.
  • If I were diagnosed with cancer, I believe that I would maintain a very high fat therapeutic ketogenic diet and would make my protein very low.
  • I would avoid glutamine but instead try to boost my immune system in other ways (herbals, nutrition etc).
  • However, remember that everybody is different and glutamine does come with some benefits. It is a personal choice as to whether the benefits outweigh the complications.
  • The jury is still out on this. I will continue to research and as I do, I will continue to educate you regarding it.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Feb 03 2017

LCKL 051 – Leucine – The Rock Star Amino Acid That Can Boost Muscle Growth Considerably…

Are you wanting to lose body fat and build muscle then Leucine may just be the amino acid you should consider implementing in your diet. The most powerful branch chain amino acid is not only Ketogenic but also incredibly powerful.

  • What Leucine is;
  • Sources of Leucine;
  • Symptoms of Leucine Deficiency;
  • How Leucine affects Muscle;
  • How Leucine affects Longevity;
  • How Leucine affects Fat Loss;
  • How Leucine affects Cholesterol Levels;
  • How Leucine affects Glucose Levels;
  • How Leucine can boost Exercise Recovery;
  • Side Effects of Leucine Supplementation;
  • Correct Dosages of Leucine;
  • Toxicity of Leucine; and
  • Supplements that Leucine is beneficial to be taken with.
What is Leucine?Sources of L-LeucineSymptoms of Leucine DeficiencyBenefit #1 - Muscle Preserving EffectBenefit #2 - Builds MuscleBenefit #3 - Improves LongevityBenefit #4 - Increases Weight LossBenefit #5 - Improves Blood Glucose LevelsBenefit #6 - Improves Cholesterol LevelsBenefit #6 - Improves Exercise RecoveryBenefit #7 - Stimulates Muscle GrowthBenefit #8 - Other BenefitsSide EffectsDosagesToxicityToxicity
  • Leucine is one of the three branched chain amino acids.
  • It is the strongest of the amino acids.
  • It has a unique ability to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis.
  • It is a purely ketogenic amino acid which means that it produces ketone bodies after catabolism.
  • It has a 10 times greater impact on protein synthesis than any of the other amino acids.

To optimise dietary absorption, many believe you need 2 parts L-Leucine and 2 parts L-Valine for every one part L-isoleucine. However others believe in different ratios.

  • Beef;
  • Pork;
  • Fish;
  • Poultry;
  • Eggs;
  • Cheese;
  • Milk;
  • Nuts;
  • Muscle Wasting;
  • Depression;
  • Low Energy Levels;
  • Muscle Weakness;
  • Studies have shown that even in conditions where atrophy is expected, such as cancer and burns, high concentrations of leucine are able to protect the lean mass of the person consuming the supplement.
  • Studies have also shown that individuals that are unable to use the muscles due to illness or injury can have the muscle breakdown halted by supplementing with Leucine supplementation.
  • Leucine turns on the growth switch which stimulates muscle hypertrophy.
  • There have been many studies that have demonstrated this.
  • For instance, one study that was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition tested the impact of several combinations of different doses of whey protein and individual amino acids on changes in muscle protein synthesis, both during rest and after resistance exercise.
  • They found that 6.25g of whey protein with a 5g dosage of leucine was more anabolic than a dose of whey with less leucine.
  • Sirtuin proteins are enzymes that are sensitive to a cellular NAD+/NADH ratio and therefore the energy of a cell.
  • SIRT1 which is the molecule most commonly said to be the antiaging factor in resveratrol is thought to be a pro-longevity factor.
  • Through studies, Leucine has been shown to stimulate SIRT-1 activity by 13% in the adipose tissue and 43% in the muscle tissue, therefore suggesting biological plausibility.
  • A study that was published in “ Diabetes“ took 8 week old mice and split them up to be either on a chow or on a HFD diet with and without leucine.
  • They found that the mice on a high fat diet gained more weight than those on a chow diet. Please note that the high fat diet is actually only 45% fat and consists of very bad quality fats so not the type of fats consumed on a ketogenic diet.
  • But what they found was the mice that were on a high fat diet and were taking leucine had a 32% reduction in weight gain and a 25% decrease in adiposity.
  • The study published in “ Diabetes“ also showed that leucine supplementation improves glucose metabolism, reduces diet induced insulin resistance and lowers plasma glucagon levels.
  • They showed that 4 weeks after the HFD treatment the fasting blood glucose levels became elevated in the HFD mice compared with chow mice.
  • However, what they found was that leucine supplementation largely prevented this HFD induced hyperglycemia.
  • On top of this they found that the Basal Plasma Insulin Concentrations and Glucose Tolerance improved on the HFD – Leucine fed mice as opposed to the HFD – Non Leucine mice.
  • This means those taking the leucine were significantly more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive than those not taking leucine.
  • The study in “Diabetes” showed that Leucine supplementation for 14 weeks decreased total cholesterol levels by 27% and LDL cholesterol by 53% in the HFD mice.
  • Another study that was published found that consuming the branch chain amino acids valine and leucine increased the serum levels of HDL Cholesterol.
  • There have been many studies done on how Leucine helps recovery. However these studies vary in their responses.
  • For instance, one study that was published in 2011 by Thomson et al found that those who had the recovery meal with higher amounts of leucine experienced a 2.5% increase in sprint power and a 13% decrease in perceived tiredness during the sprints.
  • However, there was another study published in 2012 by Nelson et al showed that it did not improve sprint performance or power, but did reduce muscle tissue damage.

There are many studies that show that Leucine activates the mTOR pathway, which is a switch that switches on the factory that produces muscles.

  • Increases Human Growth Hormone;
  • Inhibits Serotonin.
  • Excess consumption of Leucine (over 30 grams) has shown adverse effects on Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B3. Too much Leucine inhibits the body’s ability to produce these vitamins and can therefore lead to a deficiency.
  • Do not take Leucine supplementation alongside insulin as it can lead to hypoglycemic shock.
  • Consumption of 2.5 grams of Leucine has shown an increase in MPS levels.
  • Scientists recommend 10 grams of Leucine per day.
  • A good way of doing this is consume 5 grams of it during your workout and then consume another 10 grams within 30 minutes of the workout.
  • It is recommended that you take no more than 35g/day or 500mg/kg/day of Leucine.
  • Studies have shown that Leucine Toxicity , such as that seen in maple syrup urine disease can cause delirium and neurologic compromise and can be life threatening. However this is extremely rare.
  • Excess Leucine may also be a cause of Pellagra.
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B3
  • Vitamin B6
  • Magnesium
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • Valine
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Jan 30 2017

LCKL 049 – Vitamin E – Powerful Antioxidant That Protects Against Disease, Balances Hormones, Improves Fitness and Much Much More…

Have you heard about how important Vitamin E is for overall health and longevity. But are you also concerned because there are so many conflicting studies out there showing that Vitamin E is dangerous. Well, let me put your mind at rest. Vitamin E, when taken responsibly or in your food is not dangerous and is actually beneficial for skin health, heart health, eye health and even muscle growth. Discover in this episode all you needed to know about this essential Vitamin.

  • What Vitamin E is;
  • The 8 Different Types of Vitamin E;
  • Food Sources of Vitamin E;
  • Dangers of Vitamin E Deficiency;
  • Symptoms of Vitamin E Deficiency;
  • Causes of Vitamin E Deficiency;
  • General Benefits of Vitamin E;
  • Why Vitamin E and other Antioxidants are Crucial for optimising Fitness and Muscle Growth;
  • Research Studies Showing 7 Different Conditions Vitamin E is useful for;
  • What Type of Vitamin E Supplement you should be taking if you are going to supplement;
  • Toxicity of Vitamin E;
  • Medical Interactions of Vitamin E; and
  • Dosages of Vitamin E.
What is It?Food Sources of Vitamin EDangers of Vitamin E DeficiencySymptoms of Vitamin E DeficiencyCauses of Vitamin E DeficiencyGeneral Benefits of Vitamin EResearched Benefits of Vitamin EWhat Type of Supplement Should I Take?Toxicity of Vitamin E SupplementsInteractions with MedicationsDosages of Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that is found naturally in some foods, added to others and is also available as a supplement.
  • It was first discovered in 1922 at the University of California by Dr Herbert Evans and his assistant Katherine Bishop.
  • They fed rats a semi purified diet and then noticed that although the rats grew well, all the pups from the female pregnancies would die in the womb.
  • After they then supplemented them with lettuce and wheat germ, healthy pups were born.
  • Vitamin E is made up of 8 different compounds, known as 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols:
    • Alpha-tocopherol;
    • Beta-tocopherol;
    • Gamma-tocopherol;
    • Delta-tocopherol;
    • Alpha-tocotrienol;
    • Beta-tocotrienol;
    • Gamma-tocotrienol;
    • Delta-tocotrienol.

They have actually found it is much better to get your Vitamin E from food or natural sources as it is twice as bioavailable as the synthetic form. In fact, they have found that only 50% of the synthetic form is used as a natural form by the liver. The other 50% is excreted via the body in the form of urine.

The foods highest in Vitamin E are actually also able to be eaten on a low carb or ketogenic diet, such as:

  • Leafy Green Vegetables;
  • Almonds;
  • Sunflower Seeds;
  • Avocadoes;
  • Shellfish;
  • Fish;
  • Olive Oil;
  • Broccoli;
  • Squash/Pumpkin; and
  • Olives.

If you become Vitamin E deficient, it can cause severe neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction.


  • Eye Disease known as Retrolental Fibroplasia;
  • Loss of weight and delayed growth;
  • Poor eating habits;
  • Developmental Issues.


  • Chronic Liver Disease;
  • Neurological Deficits;
  • Lack of Coordination;
  • Paralysis of Eye Muscles;
  • Muscle Weakness;
  • Drooping of the Upper Eyelid;
  • Speech Disorder; and
  • Slow Growth.


  • Mild Anaemia;
  • Neurological Deficits
  • Infertility;
  • Age Spots;
  • Cataracts;
  • Decreased Sex Drive;
  • Muscle Abnormalities;
  • Enlarged Prostate;
  • Miscarriage;
  • Decreased Circulation;
  • Liver Abnormalities; and
  • Brain Abnormalities.


  • Gastrointestinal Issues;
  • Dry Hair and Hair Loss;
  • Muscular Weakness;
  • Slow Tissue Healing; and
  • Leg Cramps.

There are a couple of different causes that could contribute to Vitamin E Deficiency, such as:

  • Poor Nutrition – If you are not eating from the list of vitamin E rich foods then it is possible you will begin to suffer from a Vitamin E deficiency.
  • Low Fat Diet – As Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin, it is critically important that you consume plenty of fat when supplementing with it or when eating the vitamin e rich foods, otherwise you will not be able to absorb the vitamin correctly.
  • Fat Malabsorption – If you suffer from the inability to absorb essential fats, which often occurs in conditions such as celiac disease, crohns disease, lactose intolerance or intestinal damage, then you will become deficient in not only vitamin E but also the other fat soluble vitamins.
  • Potent Antioxidant so it helps to protect your cells from damage and slows down the ageing process.
  • Helps to balance cholesterol levels by fighting cholesterol oxidation.
  • Helps maintain youthful and radiant skin.
  • Helps maintain youthful and radiant hair.
  • Assists in balancing your hormones and therefore helping with PMS, Weight Gain, Allergies and much more
  • Helps with PMS – Take a Vitamin E supplement 2-3 days before and 2-3 days after a menstrual period to reduce the cravings, anxiety and cravings related to PMS.
  • Improves Eye Health and Vision and decreases risk of Macular Degeneration.
  • Slows down memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s Disease.
  • Improves physical endurance as it increases your energy and reduces the oxidative stress on your muscles after you exercise.

Few actually realise the importance of antioxidants when it comes to muscle growth. o Following exercise, free radicals wreak havoc on your muscles, resulting in

breakdown. These free radicals will then produce pro inflammatory cytokines, which will inhibit growth hormone and insulin like growth factor 1. These are both major players in muscle growth.

Vitamin E is a very powerful antioxidant that will do just that.

Venous Thromboembolism (including DVT and Pulmonary Embolism)

  • A study done in the Journal of Circulation in 2007 found that supplementation may reduce the risk of VTE in women, as well as those with a history or genetic predisposition.
  • This study took 39,876 women over the age of 45 and split them into two groups, one that was placebo and the other that was taking 600IU of Vitamin E per day.
  • Their risk of VTE was documented prior to the study.
  • During a follow up period of 10.2 years found that VTE occurred in 482 women: 213 in Vit E group and 269 in placebo group.

Coronary Heart Disease

  • A study done in the New England Journal of Medicine did a study in 1980 where they took 87,245 female nurses between the ages of 34 and 59 years of age.
  • They were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and cancer and they completed dietary questionnaires which assessed the consumption of a wide range of nutrients, including Vitamin E.
  • They found that women who took Vitamin E for over 2 years had a reduced risk of heart disease, although those that were taking it for short periods of time had little effect.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Vitamin E supplementation may reduce lung disease risk by about 10% in women over 45.
  • A study that was done at the Cornell University Division of Nutritional Sciences found that Women who received 600IU of Vitamin E plus 100mg of Aspirin every second day had a reduced risk of chronic lung disease than those on placebo.
  • Over a 10 year span, the researchers documented 760 new cases of chronic lung recipients in those taking the Vitamin E and 846 cases in those in the placebo group.

Reduce Cholesterol

  • Studies have shown that the Tocotrienol form of Vitamin E may reduce cholesterol levels by about 15% in those with raised cholesterol levels.
  • According to studies published in the Functional Foods in Health and Disease which is an open access journal found that 300mg per day of a tocotrienol rich palm oil for six months may reduce LDL cholesterol by 17% and total cholesterol by 11%.
  • Also, a study that was done in 1992 from researchers at Bristol-Meyers Squibb found that the gamma tocotrienol was 30 times more active than the alpha-tocotrienol.

Brain Health

  • Because of the potent antioxidant capacity of Vitamin E, it plays a key role in protecting the membranes from oxidation, as well as omega 3 fatty acids from peroxidation.
  • Although the tocotrienols are the form most beneficial for most conditions, recent data has shown that all forms of vitamin e is beneficial for the brain.
  • For instance, a paper was published in the Neurology of Ageing who found that the risk of mild cognitive impairment was 15% lower in those with the highest level of tocopherols and 8% in those with the highest level of tocotrienols.
  • They also found that those with Alzheimers Disease displayed higher blood markers of vitamin e damage.
  • There are also other studies that have shown that d-alpha-tocotrienols are one thousand times more potent than d-alpha-tocopherol in protecting the brain cells from neurodegeneration that is caused by stroke and trauma related injuries.
  • One such study is that by Professor Chandan Sen at the Ohio State University who showed that extremely low concentration of tocotrienols but not alpha tocopherol prevented glutamate induced brain cell death, which is something that occurs in the brain during a stroke.
  • What’s even more amazing is that not only does tocotrienols prevent stroke induced injuries but when introduced several hours after a stroke it can affect the complete recovery of the dying neurons.
  • There are many other studies available regarding this.

Skin Protection

  • Vitamin E is well known to be useful in the protection of the skin.
  • It is the most abundant lipophilic antioxidant that is found in human skin.
  • Vitamin E first accumulates in the sebaceous glands before it is delivered to the skin via sebum.
  • It takes about a week after taking Vitamin E supplementation for the sebum in the skin to be altered.
  • Skin vitamin E levels are higher in those with increased sebum production as well as in skin types that naturally produce more sebum.
  • Exposure to UV light lowers the Vitamin E content in the skin.
  • The main role of Vitamin E in the skin is its photoprotection, which is to prevent damage induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen species.
  • It is also known as an anti-inflammatory on the skin when used topically. Topical Vitamin E can reduce swelling, skin thickness, erythema and edema.
  • Finally, Vitamin E can help with the healing of wounds (especially topically).

Eye Health

  • Vitamin E plays an important role in protecting certain parts of the eye which is particularly susceptible to eye damage. For instance cataracts are believe to be caused by oxidation in the lens of the eye from UV radiation.

A popular eye research study known as the Age Related Eye Disease Study found that Vitamin E, along with a whole host of other nutrients has helped many people with moderate age related macular degeneration. Taking these nutrients reduced the risk of developing age related macular degeneration by around 25%.

If you are supplementing, it is important to check what type of Vitamin E is in the supplement. If it is synthetic it will read dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate or dl-alpha tocopherol. However, if it is the natural form it will read d-alpha tocopherol.

  • There has been no known data on any adverse effects from consuming Vitamin E in food.
  • However, high doses of alpha tocopherol supplements has been found to possibly cause haemorrhage and interrupt blood coagulation. High doses can also possibly inhibit platelet aggregation.
  • Studies have found that doses up to 1000 mg per day (1500IU in natural form or 1100IU in synthetic form) to be safe.

If you are taking regular medications it is important to check with your practitioner prior to taking synthetic Vitamin E.

  • Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Medications – As Vitamin E can inhibit platelet aggregation and antagonize vitamin K dependent clotting factors it is important synthetic vitamin E is not taken at the same time as drugs such as Warfarin.
  • o Simvastatin and Niacin – Do not take antioxidants alongside these drugs as it can blunt the beneficial effects of HDL cholesterol.
  • o Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy – This is still up to debate and should be researched further, although practitioners are recommending against it due to the inhibition of cellular oxidative damage in the cancer cells.
  • The recommended dosages of Vitamin E will vary, depending on the reason why you are taking the supplement.
  • Generally, the recommended dosage for Vitamin E is 15mg per day.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.



Jan 23 2017

LCKL 046 – Vitamin D – The Sunshine Vitamin that helps to Boost Immunity, Fight Depression, Boost Fat Loss and Even Protect Against Cancer

Are you suffering from Joint Pain or Frequent Colds and Infections? Do you fail to get out of the sun or you just don’t have sufficient sun around you? If so, then it is possible that you are Vitamin D Deficient. Vitamin D Deficiency can lead to increased risk of heart disease, cancer, autoimmune diseases and even obesity. Do yourself a favor and get yourself checked, but first listen to this episode…

  • What Vitamin D Is;
  • Why you should take Vitamin D3 and not Vitamin D2;
  • The best way to optimise the Vitamin D you get from the sun;
  • Symptoms you may experience if you are Vitamin D Deficient;
  • Possible Causes of low Vitamin D;
  • General Benefits of Vitamin D;
  • How Vitamin D helps to Boost Bone Health and Prevent Osteoporosis;
  • How Vitamin D decreases the risk of Multiple Sclerosis and other Autoimmune Conditions;
  • How Vitamin D helps decrease the risk of Type II Diabetes;
  • How Vitamin D decreases risk of Obesity;
  • How Vitamin D lowers rates of Depression;
  • How Vitamin D decreases Respiratory Infections;
  • How Vitamin D decreases Cardiovascular Disease;
  • How to get your Vitamin D levels tested; and
  • The dosages you should take to help optimise your health.
What is Vitamin D?Type of Vitamin D to takeVitamin D from Sun ExposureSymptoms of Vitamin D DeficiencyCauses of Low Vitamin DGeneral Benefits of Vitamin DResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : Bone Health and OsteoporosisResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : Multiple SclerosisResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : Type II DiabetesResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : ObesityResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : DepressionResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : Respiratory Tract InfectionsResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : Cardiovascular DiseaseResearched Benefits of Vitamin D : AutoimmunityDosagesTesting
  • Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin which plays an important role in many functions within the body. In fact it is not so much a vitamin but actually a steroid hormone which is designed to be obtained primarily through sun exposure, not through our food.
  • Vitamin D was first observed in the mid 1600’s by Whistler and Glisson who found that children living in industrialized cities in Great Britain had short stature and deformities of the skeleton, especially of the lower legs.
  • Unfortunately due to it being available in very few foods and people being told consistently that they must avoid the sun at all costs, Vitamin D deficiency is becoming rampant throughout the world.
  • The CDC has reported that at least 32% of children and adults in the US alone were vitamin D deficient.
  • There are two different types of Vitamin D that you can take;
  • Vitamin D2 is obtained from the foods you eat; and
  • Vitamin D3 is obtained from sun exposure.
  • Vitamin D is produced by your body when your skin is exposed to the sun.
  • This is the most efficient way of getting Vitamin D into your system.
  • The amount of Vitamin D you get from sun exposure will depend on the time of day, your skin tone and where you live.
  • The good news is you don’t need a lot of sun exposure to get the required amount of Vitamin D. You really only need half the time it takes for you to get pink skin. For instance, if it takes you half an hour to become sunburnt then you only need to be out in the sun for 15 minutes to get optimal Vitamin D.
  • Bone Pain and Weakness;
  • Difficulty Thinking Clearly;
  • Frequent Bone Fractures;
  • Head Sweating;
  • Muscle Weakness;
  • Unexplained Fatigue.
  • You have Darker Skin – Those with darker skin are more prone to Vitamin D deficiency and therefore the darker you are the more time you need to spend in the sun to get the same amount of Vitamin D produced. If you have darker skin, you may need 10 X more sun exposure than those with pale skin to get the same amount of Vitamin D.
  • You are over 50 years of age – People over 50 tend to be deficient in Vitamin D as you don’t make as much Vitamin D in response to the sun. On top of that your kidneys become much less efficient at converting the Vitamin D into the form that is used by your body.4
  • You are Overweight or Obese – Vitamin D is a fat soluble hormone so the more body fat you have the more Vitamin D your body is going to need.
  • You wear too much Sunscreen – If you are consistently dousing yourself in sunscreen every time you step outside then you are likely to be deficient in Vitamin D. Also, if you tend to go out in the sun before 9am and after 3pm you are likely to miss the optimal Vitamin D period.
  • Boost your Immune System;
  • Support Muscle Function;
  • Boosts Bone Health;
  • Keep your Heart Healthy;
  • Aid in Brain Development;
  • Reduce your risk of Multiple Sclerosis;
  • Reduce your risk of Depression.
  • Body needs Vitamin D to help absorb the calcium and phosphorus in your diet that makes for strong bones.
  • Vitamin D is essential for calcium and phosphate homeostasis and is important for optimal bone and muscle function.
  • It is also important for the development and maintenance of bone through assisting in the absorption of calcium from the intestine and acts in the mineralisation of the bone.
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to an increase in falls and fractures in the elderly.
  • Higher blood levels of Vitamin D seems to be associated with a lowered risk of multiple sclerosis.
  • According to a recent review published in the Journal of Neurosciences in 2015 they came to a number of conclusions:
    • It is well known that MS is more prevalent in higher altitudes where sunlight is of lower intensity than in lower latitudes.
    • Increased body exposure to sunlight and therefore a decreased susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency is also associated with a decreased risk of MS.
    • Babies born in the fall (therefore whose mothers were exposed to the summer sunlight) have a low MS risk but those whose babies are born in the spring have a higher risk of MS.
  • In fact, according to a study published in JAMA, and after a study of 257 military personnel with MS, they found that amongst whites, the risk of MS significantly decreased with increasing levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin d. Therefore, high circulating levels of Vitamin D are associated with a lowered risk of MS.

Studies have shown that those with blood Vitamin D levels over 25 ng/mL had a 43% reduced risk of developing T2D compared with those under 14 ng/mL.

  • Studies have shown that Vitamin D Deficiency may increase your risk of become obese later on in life and they have shown that low levels of Vitamin D may be more prone to weight gain, as well as those that are Obese have lower Vitamin D levels.
  • A review that was done in the journal Nutrients in 2013 did a review on Vitamin D and Obesity.
    • They set out to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low Vitamin D concentrations.
    • They found that there was a consistent association in the published literature between increasing BMI and lower serum vitamin D concentrations.
  • There is also evidence that weight loss itself leads to increased levels of Vitamin D, which in turn may provide additional protection against chronic diseases.
    • A study done took 383 overweight or obese women and put them in a 2 week clinical trial of a weight loss program.
    • Those who failed to lose weight at 24 months had an increase in serum Vitamin D levels of 1.9 ng/mL;
    • Those that lost 5-10% of their baseline weight had an increase of 2.7 ng/mL; and o Those who lost more than 10% of their baseline weight had a 5 ng/mL increase in Vitamin D levels.
  • Low levels of Vitamin D have been linked to Depression.
  • Vitamin D levels in the brain have been associated with the development of depression.
  • Vitamin D plays a role in regulating adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine production in the brain through Vitamin D receptors in the adrenal cortex.
  • Vitamin D is also important for protecting against the depletion of serotonin and dopamine.
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an 8-14% increase in depression.
  • In fact one study that was published in the Archives of General Psychiatry took 1282 residents between the ages of 65 and 95 years and measured their levels of Vitamin D. They found that levels of vitamin D were 14% lower in 169 people with minor depression and 14% lower in people with major depressive disorders than control studies.
  • Studies have shown that Vitamin D is incredibly important for the immune system.
  • Low Vitamin D status has increased the risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.
  • In fact, one study in the Journal of Pharmacological Pharmacotherapy found that events of respiratory infections were significantly lower in patients with higher levels of Vitamin D than in the lower levels.
  • There are many reasons why it is believed Vitamin D is beneficial for respiratory tract infections, including:
    • Increasing the production of natural antibodies; o Inducing monocyte differentiation;
    • Inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation; and
    • Enhancing the phagocytic activity of macrophages.
  • Studies have shown that Vitamin D deficiency is linked to an increased risk of:
    • Hypertension;
    • Hyperlipidemia;
    • Peripheral Vascular Disease;
    • Coronary Artery Disease;
    • Myocardial Infarction;
    • Heart Failure; and
    • Stroke.
  • In fact, a review published in the American Journal of Medical Science found a number of interesting observations regarding Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease:
    • There were higher mortality rates with increased distance from the equator.
    • Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease was proportional to the amount of hours of sunlight in the UK.
    • Vitamin D Inhibits Chlamydia Pneumoniae, which is a contributing factor towards coronary artery disease.
    • Deaths from CAD happened more in winter than in summer.
    • Blood pressure increased the further away you were from the equator.
    • Those with Vitamin D Deficiency <20 ng/mL had higher prevalence of self reported angina, myocardial infarction and heart failure compared to those with higher levels of Vitamin D.
  • It is now clear that a deficiency in Vitamin D is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection.
  • One study in the Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes journal found that low vitamin d status is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. They found that by giving oral supplementation of 2000IU per day to women with hashimotos, their titers of thyroid antibodies decreased.
  • There have been many different dosages recommended depending on the reason that you are taking it. You can download the cheat sheet with all the dosages here…However, in general it can range from as little as 1000IU to 5000IU per day.
  • Testing for Vitamin D has become increasingly easy since you are able to just get a blood test for 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
  • It is suggested that your optimal range is 50-70 ng/mL, your deficient range is less than 50 ng/mL and if you want to treat cancer and heart disease your level would be more like 70-100 ng/mL.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Jan 20 2017

LCKL 045 – Co-Enzyme Q10 – Powerful Energy Supplement You May Require to Combat Fatigue, Diabetes, Insulin Resistance and More…

Co-Enzyme Q10 is a fat soluble nutrient that is important as an antioxidant and for the correct functioning of the mitochondria, and therefore in production of energy. It has also been found to be useful in combatting diabetes, insulin resistance and PCOS.

  • What CoEnzyme Q10 is;
  • The main sources of CoEnzyme Q10;
  • 17 Symptoms of CoQ10 Deficiency;
  • 4 Factors that reduce your synthesis or production of CoQ10;
  • 7 General Benefits of Co Enzyme Q10;
  • How CoEnzyme Q10 Affects 9 Different Conditions (As Researched):
    • Liver Injury;
    • PCOS;
    • Heart Failure;
    • Myopathy;
    • Migraines;
    • Parkinson’s Disease;
    • Diabetes Mellitus;
    • Peridontal Disease; and
    • Cancer.
  • Correct Dosages of CoEnzyme Q10;
  • 4 Drugs that are contraindicated with Coenzyme Q10.
What is Coenzyme Q10?What are the sources of Coenzyme Q10?Symptoms of Coenzyme Q10 DeficiencyFactors reducing production of CoQ10General Benefits of CoQ10Ways to Increase CoQ10Researched Benefits of CoQ10 : Liver InjuryResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : PCOS/Insulin ResistanceResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : Heart FailureResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : Myopathy Associated With Statin UseResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : MigrainesResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : Parkinsons DiseaseResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : Diabetes MellitusResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : Periodontal DiseaseResearched Benefits of CoQ10 : CancerDosageDrug Interactions
  • CoQ10 is a substance that is similar in function as a vitamin and serves as an antioxidant within the body.
  • It is also known as ubiquinone and it is a fat soluble substance present in most eukaryotic cells such as the mitochondria.
  • It was first discovered in 1957 in the USA in beef hearts by Dr Frederick Crane.
  • After several false starts the first successful use of CoQ10 was in the treatment of heart failure in 1967.
  • Since then more and more research has been conducted on the benefits of it.
  • It is found in every cell of the body and although your body manufacturers it itself, we may still be deficient due to poor lifestyle and nutritional choices.
  • CoQ10 is required to make the energy needed for cell growth and maintenance and therefore those organs with the highest energy requirement, such as the heart, liver and kidneys are especially high in Coenzyme Q10.
  • Unfortunately levels of Coenzyme Q10 will decrease as we age.
  • The main source of Coenzyme Q10 is that of organ meats, in particular that of Heart. As it is highly concentrated in the heart of all animals it stands to reason why CoQ10 would also be beneficial for heart health.
  • However, although the main source is heart, it is also present in other organ meats, such as liver and kidneys.
  • If you have not yet heard episode #43 on Organ Meats then now is the time to go back and do so.
  • On top of organ meats, Coenzyme Q10 is found in fish and meats.
  • Ataxia;
  • Cardiomyopathy;
  • Muscle Weakness;
  • Fatigue;
  • Seizures;
  • Kidney Failure;
  • Learning Disabilities;
  • Scoliosis;
  • Heart Failure;
  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension);
  • Chest Pain;
  • Increased Sarcopenia
    • A study in PLoS One in 2016 discovered that a low percentage of Coenzyme Q10 in the body has been linked to an increased risk of sarcopenia in humans due to the fact that CoQ10 is required for muscle strength, peak flow and muscle mass.;
  • Depression;
  • Fibromyalgia;
  • Infertility;
  • Migraines;
  • Much More…
  • Statins – Reduces serum CoQ10 levels by up to 40%;
  • Beta Blockers;
  • Blood Pressure Lowering Medications;
  • Age.
  • Improves Muscle Mass and Prevents Sarcopenia.
  • Decreases Inflammation.
  • Increases Adiponectin Levels.
  • Increases Energy.
  • Improving recovery from exercise.
  • Improves heart health.
  • Lowers blood sugar levels and Insulin resistance.
  1. Eat plenty of leafy green vegetables;
  2. Ensure you get plenty of sun;
  3. Take this CoQ10 with some sort of fat like olive oil, coconut oil or avocado.
  • According to a research animal study published in a journal in 2016, coenzyme Q10 has a protective effect on Thioacetamide Induced Acute Liver Injury.
  • This study also showed that the CoEnzyme Q10 had a beneficial effect on the behavioural, biochemical and pathological factors associated with this liver injury.
  • According to a study in Clinical Endocrinology, Coenzyme Q10 supplementation for 12 weeks amongst patients with PCOS had beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, serum cholesterol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.
  • This study was conducted on 60 women who were diagnosed with PCOS. These subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups. One took a placebo and the other took 100mg of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation.
  • After 12 weeks, they found that those who had been taking the Coenzyme Q10 had significantly decreased fasting glucose, serum insulin concentrations, reduction in insulin resistance and a reduction in LDL cholesterol levels.
  • This could be promising for those of us that are insulin resistant.

There have been many studies done on the effects that Coenzyme Q10 can have on the heart and on optimising heart health. For instance, mortality is one study I wanted to bring up.

  • Mortality – According to a study which was published in the Heart Vessels Journal, there was low circulating levels of Coenzyme Q10 amongst the patients who passed away in hospital, in comparison to those that survived. To determine this, they took 257 cardiovascular patients that were admitted to the coronary care unit. Serum Co Q10 were measured after a fast within 24 hours of admission. They then determined it was lower in those that passed away than in those that survived.
  • If you absolutely must take statins then it is absolutely essential that you also take CoEnzyme Q10. Statin drugs are especially bad at depleting your body of Coenzyme Q10.
  • Although there is limited research done on the benefits of reducing muscle pain associated with statin use, it has been recommended that it be taken due to the fact that it will be naturally depleted by statins.
  • One study took 32 migraine sufferers who found that CoQ10 supplements, at a dosage of 150mg per day reduced the frequency of migraine headaches and reduced the number of days for each of the attacks. 9 out of 10 people experienced at least a 25% reduction in the number of days with the migraine. However, it found that you would need to be taking it for at least 4 weeks before it had the effect. With continued use, the maximal effect was seen between 5 and 12 weeks.
  • The other study done on Coenzyme Q10 and Migraine was the one published in Neurology which showed that when a dose of 300mg was taken daily and was continued for3 months, it decreased the number of days of each attack and also the frequency of the migraines.
  • A study done by Shults et al in 2002 took 87 people with early stages of parkinsons disease and then gave them either placebo or different dosages of Coenzyme Q10. It was found that those taking the highest dosages of Coenzyme Q10 developed less disability than those using lower doses or taking the placebo. This was seen for mental and movement symptoms and activity of daily living.
  • A study published in the Molecular Aspects of Medicine Journal in 1997 found that supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 lowers high blood pressure and improves blood vessel function and blood flow in people with diabetes. They have also found that it may have a beneficial effect on blood sugar control. The best dosage for diabetes is 200mg/day.
  • Although there has been limited studies done on Coenzyme Q10 and Periodontal Disease, there is a small study which shows promise. This study was done by Hanioka T and colleagues and it was a study of 10 people with periodontitis who found that applying coenzyme Q10 to the affected areas for 3 weeks resulted in significant improvements in gum health and healing.
  • There has also been a number of other promising studies indicating it may be beneficial for reducing side effects of cancer treatments as well as reducing the incidence of cancer. However, further research is required.
  • Tamoxifen which is a popular drug used for breast cancer has been known to reduce cholesterol levels but increase triglyceride levels. Well there was a study done using CoQ10, Riboflavin and Niacin, alongside Tamoxifen which showed that the vitamins prevented the increase in the triglyceride levels whilst not hampering the effects of the cholesterol levels.

CoQ10 is perfectly safe in reasonably high dosages. However, some people may experience GI disturbances when taking very high doses. The observed safe limit is set at 1200mg/day at present but a daily dosage up to 3600mg has been found to be tolerated quite comfortably in both healthy and unhealthy people. It is recommended to take between 90mg and 200mg with a meal.

  • Please note that Coenzyme Q10 can interfere with some medications, including:
  • Beta blockers;
  • Antidepressants;
  • Chemotherapy Drugs; and
  • Warfarin.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Jan 18 2017

LCKL 044 – The Hidden Power of Vitamin A and the Myths Surrounding It’s Toxicity

Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin which is absolutely essential for survival, both for the health of the brain, the eyes, the immune system, the skin and even in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. However, due to the Vitamin A scare and the low fat craze we are becoming more and more deficient in this vital nutrient. Listen up to learn more…


  • What Vitamin A is;
  • The different types of Vitamin A and how synthetic vitamin A differs from that found in liver and other animal products;
  • How a low fat diet can be detrimental to your overall health and how Vitamin A deficiency is one of the culprits;
  • The dangers associated with Vitamin A Deficiency and how you may become deficient in this essential vitamin;
  • General benefits associated with optimising Vitamin A levels;
  • How Vitamin A can help with Vision;
  • How Vitamin A can help with Brain Health;
  • How Vitamin A can help with your Immune System;
  • How Vitamin A can help with Skin Health;
  • How Vitamin A can help with Cancer;
  • How Vitamin A during pregnancy is not detrimental but is in fact essential to the health of you and your unborn child; and
  • Reasons why you should not believe all the studies you read or hear. Some of them are seriously flawed…
What is Vitamin A?SourcesDangers of a Low Fat DietDangers of Vitamin A DeficiencyCauses of Vitamin A DeficiencyGeneral Benefits of Vitamin AResearched Benefits : VisionResearched Benefits : MalariaResearched Benefits : Regulates ImmunityResearched Benefits : Reduces Menorrhagia (Excessive Menstrual Bleeding)Researched Benefits : Improves Brain HealthResearched Benefits : Improves Skin HealthResearched Benefits : CancerVitamin A Toxicity
  • A group of fat soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal and retinyl esters.
  • It is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction and cellular communication.
  • Vitamin A was discovered by a researcher named E V McCollum in the year of 1907. He first became interested when he realised that cows who were fed wheat failed to thrive, became blind and gave birth to dead calves while those eating yellow corn did not.
    • After realising that it was too difficult to research on cows due to their size and inability for a large cohort he decided to test it on rats (which were just pests anyway).
    • He found that rats who were fed pure protein, pure skim milk, sugar, minerals and lard or olive oil for fat failed to grow. But those who were given butterfat or egg yolks had their health restored.
    • He found this fat soluble factor (Vitamin A) which was essential for growth and survival.
  • 5 Months after McCollums study, other researchers by the name Osbourne and Mendel found that cod liver oil produced the same results as butter in rat studies.
  • On top of this there were many other researchers that realised the importance of Vitamin A.

Preformed Vitamin A

  • Dairy Products;
  • Fish; and
  • Meat (especially liver).


Provitamin A

  • Beta Carotene, Alpha Carotene and Beta Cryptoxanthin.
  • These plant pigments are converted into Vitamin A.
  • Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin and therefore will be unable to be absorbed on a low fat diet.
  • Carotenes are converted by the action of bile salts and very little bile reaches the intestines when a meal is low in fat. Butterfat stimulates the secretion of bile that is needed to convert carotenes from vegetables into vitamin A and at the same time it provides an easily absorbed Vitamin A at the same time.
  • Although Carotenes from vegetables are able to be converted into Vitamin A, those with Diabetics, Poor Thyroid Function and Poor Digestive Issues cannot make the conversion.
  • Other issues that hinder this conversion include strenuous physical exercise, excessive alcohol consumption, excessive iron consumption, use of popular drugs, excessive polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc deficiency and even cold weather.
  • In pregnant mothers a deficiency can result in offspring with eye defects, displaced kidneys, displaced hairlip, displaced cleft palate and abnormalities of the heart and blood vessels.
  • In 3rd world communities vitamin A deficiencies are rampant and contribute to high infant mortality, blindness, stunted growth, bone deformities and susceptibility to infection. Even in communities that have access to a plentiful supply of carotenes in vegetables and fruits deal with these issues. They have found that a scarcity of quality dairy, minimal consumption of organ meats and using vegetable oils instead of animal fats has contributed to these issues.
  • Being an infant or child;
  • Having Diabetes;
  • Low Thyroid Function;
  • Low Fat Diet;
  • Intestinal Roundworms;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Pancreatic Disease;
  • Celiac Disease;
  • Excessive amounts of stress;
  • Strenous Physical Exercise;
  • Periods of physical growth;
  • People with measles;
  • High Protein Consumption;
  • Pregnancy and Lactation; and
  • Growth and Repair of Body Tissues;
  • Protects Mucous Membranes of the mouth, nose, throat and lungs;
  • Promotes the secretion of gastric juices necessary for proper digestion of protein;
  • Helps to build strong bones and teeth and rich blood;
  • Essential for good eyesight;
  • Aids in the production of RNA; and
  • Contributes to the health of the immune system.
  • Vitamin A is an essential component of rhodopsin, a protein which absorbs light in the retinal receptors.
  • It also supports the normal differentiation and function of the conjunctival membranes and cornea.
  • In 1904 a Japanese physician by the name of M Mori treated children with Xeropthlamia with liver and cod liver oil with remarkable results. Xeropthalmia is a condition that starts with night blindness, leads to dissolution of the cornea and finally results in bursting of the eye. In fact when it came to treating this condition, cod liver oil was found even more effective than liver. They found that the result for this was so dramatic that by the evening the children with the night blindness were already dancing around briskly.
  • There was also research showing that cod liver oil also helped to reverse keratomalacia which is associated with severe nutritional deficiencies and is characterized by corneal ulceration, extreme dryness of the eyes and infection.
    • One researcher by the name of Bloch gave children a diet consisting entirely of whole milk, butter, eggs and cod liver oil and found that it cured night blindness and keratomalacia.
    • To test this, he gave one group cod liver oil/butterfat and one group margarine and half of the group that had margarine still developed corneal problems but the ones eating butterfat and cod liver oil still remained health.
  • Research has shown that Vitamin A Supplementation can reduce the incidence of malaria. In fact a research study that was published in the Lancet in 1999 in Papua New Guinea found that these people had a 30% lower incidence of malaria than those receiving a placebo.
  • A research study in the journal Nutrition Reviews has shown 3 ways that Vitamin A can influence immunity.
  • Vitamin A Deficiency leads to a loss of ciliated cells in the lungs, which is an important first line of defence against pathogens.
  • Vitamin A promotes mucin secretion and microvilli formation by the mucosa, including the GI tract mucosa.
  • Vitamin A also regulates T Cell Production and Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death.
  • A study in the South African Journal of Medicine found that women who were treated with megadoses of Vitamin A (up to 100,000 IU per day) resulted in a 92% reduction in menorrhagia.

Memory and Learning

  • Lack of vitamin A interferes with optimal function of the hippocampus, which is the main seat of learning.
  • Scientists found that removing Vitamin A from the diet of mice reduced learning and memory.


  • Natural Vitamin A has been shown to help reconnect the retinoid receptors in the brain of autistic children, therefore helping with sensory perception, language processing and attention. Use of cod liver oil has also been shown to help children recover from autism due to the DPT Vaccine.


  • Studies have shown that those with high levels of Vitamin A in their blood were much more likely to recover after a stroke.
  • Vitamin A has been shown to be useful in the treatment of psoriasis. Research has found that patients who suffer from advanced psoriasis had low levels of Vitamin A in their blood.
  • There has been a great deal of research done on the effect of Vitamin A and Cancer.
  • Unfortunately for some reason this research has not been widely adopted.
  • However, there have been a couple of situations historically which have shown that Vitamin A can be beneficial in the treatment of cancer:
    • In 1946 Dr Max Gerson testified before a US congressional committee on the successful of his Vitamin A cancer treatment but he was ignored. He was well known for treating terminal cancer using raw liver juice which is a strong source of Vitamin A.
    • In 1973 a physician by the name of Dr Kanematsu Sigiura published a study showing that mammary tumors were able to be regressed with the use of Vitamin A and Laetrile. However, his results were completely denied.
    • A study has been done showing that Vitamin A can be protective against lung and bladder cancers in men.
    • Also a study published in the Drugs of Experimental Clinical Research Journal has found that Vitamin A can also be protective against prostate cancer too. They found that 14 out of 15 patients with prostate cancer achieved total remission using Vitamin A as part of the cancer treatment.
  • Although Vitamin A Toxicity is not common it is something that can happen if you take excessive amounts of Vitamin A Supplements:
    • Symptoms of Vitamin A Toxicity include:
      • Dizziness;
      • Nausea;
      • Vomiting;
      • Headaches;
      • Skin Damage;
      • Mental Disturbances; and
      • Infrequent Menstruation.
    • Symptoms of Severe Vitamin A Toxicity can include:
      • Blindness;
      • Liver Damage – Can occur in children who take RDA Approved adult levels over prolonged periods of time or adults who take 5 times as much RDA Approved levels for 7-10 years.
      • Chronic overdose in children can cause fluid on the brain.
  • Acute vitamin A poisoning can occur in children after taking one dose of synthetic vitamin A in the range of 300,000 IU or a daily dosage of 60,000 IU for a few weeks.
  • There has been ongoing concern about the dangers of Vitamin A toxicity, especially in Pregnancy. Because of this the RDA has been reduced from 5,000 IU to 2,500 IU and the upper limit has been set at an upper limit of 10,000 IU for women.
  • However, unfortunately 1 tbsp Cod Liver Oil contains at least 15,000 IU and one serving of liver can contain up to 40,000 IU. Therefore, it is far too easy to go over the 10,000IU dosage.
  • This concern arose after an article entitled “Teratogenicity of High Vitamin A Intake” was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1995 showing that linked birth defects to high vitamin A excess in 22000 women. Researchers found that cranial neural crest defects increased with increased dosages of Vitamin A. However, what they didn’t report was that neural tube defects decreased with Vitamin A consumption. Other than this, no trend was apparent with musculoskeletal, urogenital or other defects. Plus when the Vitamin A was from food alone and not from supplementation, the cranial neural crest defects were much less pronounced.
  • But this research study was flawed.
    • What they did to determine this was that they interviewed these women and asked about their eating habits and supplement intake before and during pregnancy. This in itself is not an accurate way of determining accurate Vitamin A levels.
    • Blood tests were not taken to determine the actual usable vitamin A status of the mothers.
    • The birth defects were not weighed according to severity. Therefore it was unable to be determined whether the defects of the babies born to mothers taking the high doses of vitamin A were serious or minor compared to those taking lower amounts.
    • Most of all, the researchers failed to distinguish between manufactured Vitamin A in the form of retinol which is found in supplements and added to fabricated foods or from vitamin A containing foods. Synthetic vitamins are less biologically active and therefore less effective than naturally occurring vitamins.
    • They also made no distinction between those consuming whole Vitamin A from animal sources and those who ingested the retinol added to margarine, white flour and breakfast cereals. Remember that these foods are not only deficient in real Vitamin A but they also contain other substances that can cause birth defects.
  • What they have found is that cranial neural crest defects increased in proportion to the amount of retinol from supplements that were consumed during the first trimester of pregnancy (although it was considered safe up to 15,000 IU per day). Unlike Vitamin A from foods, the retinol from synthetic supplements can be teratogenic, especially when your health is not optimal.
  • However, there have also been many research studies that have shown this is not the case.
    • For instance, a study in Rome found no congenital malformations among 120 infants exposed to more than 50,000 IU of vitamin A per day.
    • Another study in Switzerland found that the blood levels of Vitamin A in pregnant women at a dosage of 30,000 IU per day had no association with birth defects.
  • It is important to note that Vitamin A toxicity does not occur from food unless you are consuming seal or bear liver. Even synthetic vitamins are not toxic if given in a single large dose or smaller daily doses. Do not be scared to consume the best superfoods – Liver and Cod Liver Oil.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


Jan 13 2017

LCKL 042 – How Choline Boosts Exercise Performance, Brain Health and Child Development

Choline is an important nutrient that is useful for boosting exercise performance, brain health and child development. It is particularly high in pastured eggs and so is particularly high in the ketogenic diet. To learn more about what Choline is and why we may become choline deficient.


  • What Choline is;
  • Reasons For Choline Deficiency;
  • Symptoms of Choline Deficiency;
  • Benefits of Choline;
  • Sources of Choline;
  • Supplementation of Choline;
  • Dosages of Choline;
  • Folate – A Critical Nutrient For Absorption of Choline; and
  • Toxicity of Choline.
What is Choline?Reasons for Choline DeficiencySymptoms of Choline DeficiencyBenefits of Choline : Forms DNA and Cell StructuresBenefits of Choline : Liver FunctionBenefits of Choline : Brain DevelopmentBenefits of Choline : Exercise Performance and Muscle FunctionBenefits of Choline : Heart HealthBenefits of Choline : PregnancyBenefits of Choline : Child DevelopmentBenefits of Choline : DetoxificationSources of CholineSupplementation of CholineDosages of CholineFolate - A Critical Nutrient for CholineToxicity
  • Choline is a nutrient that is found in most fat containing foods, in the form of phosphatidylcholine.
  • It is a water soluble nutrient that is related to other vitamins, such as folate and the B Complex Vitamins.
  • Genetic condition which interferes with methylation;
  • People with fatty liver.
  • Low Energy Levels or Fatigue;
  • Memory Loss;
  • Cognitive Decline;
  • Learning Disabilities;
  • Muscle Aches;
  • Nerve Damage;
  • Mood Changes or Disorders.
  • Helps the body absorb fat and these fats are used to create the cell membranes and structures. Without enough choline our cells cannot hold their structure and signal messages to other parts of the body.
  • Transports fats from the liver to the cells throughout the body.
  • Keeps the liver clear from fat buildup.
  • Transports both cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to other parts of the body.
  • Helps form LDL cholesterol (which is still required in the body at certain levels).
  • People with low choline levels are at greater risk of developing liver failure or liver damage.
  • Involved in methylation, involved in detoxification.
  • Important for functioning of a key neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which helps nerves to communicate and muscles to move. Acetylcholine is important for memory and learning so without sufficient amounts of this neurotransmitter it can result in poor concentration, poor memory, mood changes and other cognitive impairments.
  • Maintains the membranes of brain cells.
  • Helps to form tissue within the CNS that plays a part in brain development and growth.
  • Keeps your mind mentally sharp as you get older. It plays a role in preserving memory and preventing memory loss, dementia and other signs of cognitive decline.
  • Choline helps to keep the brain elastic and keep plasticity as we get older. Plasticity refers to how easily your neurons are able to form new connections. When a new connection (synapse) is created between two neurons, memories are believed to be formed.
  • People with alzheimers actually show very low levels of acetylcholine and many drugs used for alzheimers actually do the same thing that choline does.
  • Helps improve mental energy, focus and concentration.
  • May improve energy levels, mood, sleep cycles and recovery time following strenuous exercise.
  • May be useful in preventing fatigue and muscle aches or pains following exercise.
  • Your muscles would not be able to move without the help of acetylcholine. Nerve cells push small quantities of acetylcholine across the neuromuscular junctions. When enough acetylcholine attaches itself to the outer surface of the muscle cell, the muscle cell will become excited enough to contract.
  • If you ran out of acetylcholine your muscles would cease functioning and you would stop dead in your tracks, even if your muscle cells were rich in carbohydrates, enzymes and other essentials necessary for contraction.
  • Both Choline and Folate help to convert homocysteine (an amino acid that has been correlated with heart disease) into the benign amino acid methionine, which is used to repair and build proteins.
  • It also supports a strong heart muscle with regular contractions. This then leads to a controlled and lowered heart rate with less stress to the heart over time.
  • Choline has also been shown to be protective against strokes by protecting against the formation of plaque in the arteries and other tissues.
  • Choline is rapidly used by foetuses while their brains, cell structures and nerves are forming.
  • Studies have shown that when a fetus obtains more choline it has a better chance of having healthy, sharp brain functioning and lower risk of brain abnormalities.
  • Other studies have shown that pregnant women who have low levels of choline have a higher chance of having children with neural tube defects and developmental problems.
  • As children grow, choline is required to help develop brain function as it plays an important role in learning, remembering, logical thinking and concentration.
  • Children require choline to help with information retention, verbal abilities, creative thinking, mathematical skills, social cues and even more…
  • Helps in the process of methylation, which is used for detoxification.

Studies have shown that only a percentage of the choline found in food sources isn’t absorbed by the body which may be why people suffer from choline deficiency. This is one reason why this may be a nutrient that should be supplemented.

  • Eggs (147mg per egg);
  • Grass Fed Beef (78mg per 3oz);
  • Beef Liver (283mg per 3oz);
  • Salmon (242mg per fillet);
  • Cauliflower (47mg per 1 cup raw);
  • Brussel Sprouts (17mg per 1 cup raw).
  • CDP Choline is the best type. Also known as Citicoline or Alpha GPC Choline.
  • These produce the most benefits in the body as this closely mimics the way choline is found naturally in food sources.

According to the website Dr Axe he has specified the following dosages to produce benefits without causing harm (it would take a lot for choline to cause any damage by the way).

  • Infants/Babies – 125-150mg per day
  • Children 1-8 yr old – 150-250mg per day
  • Teens 8-13 – 250-375mg per day
  • Women Over 14 – 425-550mg per day
  • Men Over 14 – 550mg per day
  • Pregnant Women – 450-550mg per day
  • Breastfeeding Women – 550mg per day
  • Folate plays a part in the body’s ability to create and use choline.
  • The amount of folate you consume dictates how much choline your body makes and needs from food sources.
  • Someone who obtains more folate from leafy green vegetables will need less choline from food.
  • Choline is considered a very safe nutrient but like anything too much is not a good thing.
  • If you vastly exceed the recommended amount you may experience:
    • Diarrhea;
    • Nausea;
    • Fatigue;
    • Hypertension; and
    • Excessive Perspiration.
DisclaimerTranscript PDFResources

Please note that this information is not intended for medical purposes or to replace the advice of your medical practitioner. It is for informational purposes only to help guide you on your journey towards optimal wellness.


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